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CEBUANO-ENGLISH Sample Dictionary

by Jessie Grace U. Rubrico


This is an attempt to present a dictionary of Cebuano that describes its core lexicon adequately and accurately, yet user-friendly and economical. It takes into consideration the ordinary users --the language learners, the native speakers, and language practitioners (i.e., the translators, interpreters, language teachers, etc). Although it employs linguistic principles and theories, it will veer away from being technical to dampen the interest or frustrate the users. This is an endeavor to present a simple dictionary that is easy to use and understand yet linguistically significant.

Grammar notes relevant to the use of this dictionary --phonology, morphology and syntax, and other related information-- may be found at the Cebuano studies section, Fil Ling button of this homepage. This part is explained simply and should not be difficult for learners to grasp. Explained very briefly below are the lexical categories used. 
 

Word classification

Nouns are name words. They refer to things, places, people and events. They may come with or without markers and can be replaced by pronouns --personal or demonstrative. Root nouns can stand alone. By affixation, they can become other nouns, adjectives, or verbs. Some of the affixes used with nouns are as follows: 
                                        a) Nouns > Nouns - ka-, ka-...-an, isigka-, pagka-, taga-; 
                                        b) Nouns > Adjectives - an, -in-, -on, maki-; 
                                        c) Nouns to Verbs - verbal affixes 

Verbs are actions words. Some verbs express feelings, conditions,emotions. In Cebuano almost all words can become verbs  by affixation. Verbal affixes give the verbs their inflection  with respect to VOICE, MOOD, and ASPECT. 
 
VERBAL INFLECTIONS FOR VOICE, MOOD, AND ASPECT
VOICE/CASE   AGENTIVE
P A S S I V E
M O O D A S P E C T   DIRECT
INDIRECT
INSTRUMENTAL
 

TEMPORAL

COMPLETED MI-, NI- GI- GI-...-AN  GI-
PROGRESSIVE  GA- GI- GA- .-AN GI-
PLANNED MO- -ON -AN I-
COMMAND PAG-/ROOT -A/I- -I/I- I-
  

DURATIVE

COMPLETED NAG- GI- GI--AN GI-
PROGRESSIVE NAG-, NAGA- GINA- GINA--AN GINA-
PLANNED MAG- ON- -AN- I-
COMMAND PAG- -A/I- -I/I- I-
  

APTATIVE

COMPLETED NAKA- NA- NA- GIKA-
PROGRESSIVE NAKA- GAKA- GAKA--AN GIKA-
PLANNED MAKA- MA- MA- IKA-
STATIVE  COMPLETED NA- NA-.-AN
PROGRESSIVE GAKA- GIKA--AN
PLANNED MA- MAKA-..-AN
COMMAND  PAGKA-/KA- KA- -I
  

RECIPROCAL

COMPLETED MAG-, NAKIG-
PROGRESSIVE NAGA-, NAKIG-
PLANNED MAG-, MAKIG-
COMMAND PAG-/PAKIG-
 

Pronouns are noun-substitutes.They are inflected for person (First,Second, Third), number (singular and plural) and case (nominative, genetive I (preposed), genetive 2 (postposed), oblique. They can be personal, demonstrative and relative. Below is a table showing the different forms of personal pronouns.

TABLE 2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN CEBUANO
NUMBER
PERSON  CASE >
NOMINATIVE
GENETIVE 1
GENETIVE 2
OBLIQUE
  

SINGULAR

SPEAKER                (1) AKO AKO (-NG) NAKO KANAKO
ONE TALKED TO   (2) IKAW, KA IMO (-NG) NIMO KANIMO
ONE TALKED OF   (3) SIYA IYAN (-NG) NIYA KANIYA
  

PLURAL

KAMI UG KAMO   (1) KITA ATO (-NG) NATO KANATO
KAMI UG SILA       (1) KAMI AMO (-NG) NAMO KANAMO
KAMO UG SILA     (2) KAMO INYO (-NG) NINYO KANINYO
SILA AT SILA         (3) SILA ILA (NG-) NILA KANILA
  

Adjectives are picture words; they describe nouns. They are inflected for number and comparison. They take the infix -g- as pluralizer (as in dako, pl. = dagko). For comparison, the expresssions sama sa, mas...kay, pinaka- or labing + Adj. are used. An adjective may also be reduplicated to denote diminutive degree. With the use of DILI adjectives can be negated as in dili gwapa 

Adverbs are words that refer to the time, manner and frequency of the action. They are also adjective intensifiers. Some examples of adverbs are: kagabii, kapila, kaduha, inigkabuntag, kaayo, karon. 

Particles are without inflections and they are used for emphasis or to amplify the meaning of the words they modify. Some particles are ug, man, bitaw, diay, ra, gud, pa, na. 

Conjunctions are words that connect. The connect words, phrases, clauses and sentences. Examples of conjunctions are ug,kon, kung, o, pero, apan. 

Prepositions are locational or time words. Here are some prepositions: sa, tupad, atbang, kilid, luyo. 

Interjections are words or expressions used as an exclamation. Pagdali! (Hurry!); Maayo! (Good!); Pagkawala'y buot! (Fool!). 

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Maintained by Mark Rubrico