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Cebuano Grammar Notes

by Jessie Grace U. Rubrico

4. Word classification

4.1 Nouns are name words. They refer to things, places, people and events. They may come with or without markers and can be replaced by pronouns --personal or demonstrative. Root nouns can stand alone. By affixation, they can become other nouns, adjectives, or verbs. Some of the affixes used with nouns are as follows:
                                    a) Nouns > Nouns - ka-, ka-...-an, isigka-, pagka-, taga-
                                    b) Nouns > Adjectives - an, -in-, -on, maki-;
                                    c) Nouns to Verbs - verbal affixes                                                 
 

4..2 Verbs are actions words. Some verbs express feelings, conditions, emotions. In Cebuano almost all words can become verbs  by affixation. Verbal affixes give the verbs their inflection  with respect to VOICE, MOOD, and ASPECT.

4.2.1 Voice "is the difference in affix formation of a verb to indicate whether the subject acts or receives the influence of the action." Voice is either ACTIVE or PASSIVE. It is Active if the subject is the doer of the action, and Passive when the subject is the object or instrument of the action.

Verbs in the Passive Voice fall into three categories:

a)  Direct Passive when the direct object of the verb is subjectivalized -- that is,it is made the subject
      of  the passive sentence. Direct object is that which receives the action of the verb. Affixes in
      this  group are -on, gi-,-a. Examples: lutoon (to cook); giluto (cooked); lutoa (command)

b)  Indirect Passive when the indirect object is subjectivalized. This includes the locative and the
     benefactive objects which may be the experiencer, benefaciary of,or the place affected by the
     action. Affixes in this group are -an, gi-...-an, and -a. Examples: sakay -- sakyan -gisakyan-sakyi

c)  Instrumental Passive when the thing or instrument through which the action is performed is
     subjectivalized. Affixes in this group are i-, and gi-. Examples: palit -- ipalit - gipalit

Active verbal affixes are mo-, mag-, ma-, maka-,and the pluralizer mang-.
 

4.2.2 Mood is the "inflection form of a verb: to express whether the action or state it denotes is conceived as fact or in some other manner as command, possibility or wish." Mood for Cebuano verbs may be classified as follows:

a)  Temporal when the action is instantaneous or immediately completed.
      Example: Mitindog siya (He stood up).
b)  Durative when the action lasts over a longer period of time.
      Example: Magsulat siyag libro. (He'll write a book)

c)  Aptative when the action expresses ability, possibility,or when it is accidental or unintentional.
     Example: Makabasa ako ug hinapon (I can read Japanese); Nakapalit ra gyud siya ug balay
     (He  finally managed to buy a house); Nakaligis sila ug bata (They accidentally ran over a child).

d)  Stative when the action expresses emotions, feelings or conditions.
      Example: Nasuko siya nimo (He's angry at you). Nahigugma siya kang Maria (He loves Maria).

e)  Reciprocal when it expresses exchange of action between two or more actors.
     Makigkita siya nako karon (He wants me to meet him today).
     Magbinayloay kami ug hunahuna labot niana (We'll discuss that).
 

4.2.3 Aspect is "the nature of action of a verb as to its beginning,duration, completion or repetition and without reference to its position in time." Cebuano verbs are inflected for aspect, to wit:

           Action Not Begun (ANB) may be one that is PLANNED or given asCOMMAND;
           Action Begun AB). This includes COMPLETED ones and those that are still IN PROGRESS.



A summary of verbal inflections for VOICE, MOOD, AND ASPECT.
VOICE/CASE   AGENTIVE
P A S S I V E
M O O D A S P E C T   DIRECT
INDIRECT
INSTRUMENTAL

TEMPORAL

COMPLETED MI-, NI- GI- GI-...-AN  GI-
PROGRESSIVE  GA- GI- GA- .-AN GI-
PLANNED MO- -ON -AN I-
COMMAND PAG-/ROOT -A/I- -I/I- I-

DURATIVE

COMPLETED NAG- GI- GI--AN GI-
PROGRESSIVE NAG-, NAGA- GINA- GINA--AN GINA-
PLANNED MAG- ON- -AN- I-
COMMAND PAG- -A/I- -I/I- I-

APTATIVE

COMPLETED NAKA- NA- NA- GIKA-
PROGRESSIVE NAKA- GAKA- GAKA--AN GIKA-
PLANNED MAKA- MA- MA- IKA-

STATIVE 

COMPLETED NA- NA-.-AN
PROGRESSIVE GAKA- GIKA--AN
PLANNED MA- MAKA-..-AN
COMMAND  PAGKA-/KA- KA- -I

RECIPROCAL

COMPLETED MAG-, NAKIG-
PROGRESSIVE NAGA-, NAKIG-
PLANNED MAG-, MAKIG-
COMMAND PAG-/PAKIG-

4.3 Pronouns are noun-substitutes.They are inflected for person (First,Second, Third), number (singular and plural) and case (nominative, genetive I (preposed), genetive 2 (postposed), oblique. They can be personal, demonstrative and relative. Below is a table showing the different forms of personal pronouns.


PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN CEBUANO
NUMBER
PERSON  CASE > 
NOMINATIVE
GENETIVE 1
GENETIVE 2
OBLIQUE
SINGULAR SPEAKER (1)  AKO AKO (-NG) NAKO KANAKO
ONE TALKED TO(2)  IKAW, KA IMO (-NG) NIMO KANIMO
ONE TALKED OF(3)  SIYA IYAN (-NG) NIYA KANIYA
PLURAL KAMI UG KAMO (1) KITA ATO (-NG) NATO KANATO
KAMI UG SILA (1)  KAMI AMO (-NG) NAMO KANAMO
KAMO UG SILA (2)  KAMO INYO (-NG) NINYO KANINYO
SILA AT SILA (3)  SILA ILA (NG-) NILA KANILA

 

4.4 Adjectives are picture words; they describe nouns. They are inflected for number and comparison. They take the infix -g- as pluralizer (as in dako, pl. = dagko). For comparison, the expresssions sama sa, mas...kay, pinaka- or labing + Adj. are used. An adjective may also be reduplicated to denote diminutive degree. With the use of DILI adjectives can be negated as in 
dili gwapa.

Adjectives can become nouns,other adjectives and verbs. The affixes na-, nanga-, nagka-, mo- create adjectival verbs. Adjectival nouns are derived by the affixes ma-, ka-, pagka-. Some affixes used to derive adjectival verbs are ma-, ma-...-an, ka-...-an, ika-. The prefix ma- is used to derive adjectival adjectives.

4.5 Adverbs are words that refer to the time, manner and frequency of the action. They are also adjective intensifiers. Some examples of adverbs are: kagabii, kapila, kaduha, inigkabuntag, kaayo, karon, diin.

4.6 Particles are without inflections and they are used for emphasis or to amplify the meaning of the words they modify. Some particles are ug, man, bitaw, diay, ra, gud, pa, na.

4.7 Conjunctions are words that connect. They connect words, phrases, clauses and sentences. Examples of conjunctions are ug,kon, kung, o, pero, apan.

4.8 Prepositions are locational or time words. Here are some prepositions: sa, tupad, atbang, kilid, luyo.

4.9 Interjections are words or expressions used as an exclamation. Pagdali! (Hurry!); Maayo! (Good!); Pagkawala'y buot! (Fool!). 

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